A spotter’s guide to the SBM-20 Geiger counter tube

SBM-20 and friends
click to enlarge

The picture above shows a variety of Geiger tubes that are commonly sold under the name “SBM-20”. This post is an attempt to clear up some of the confusion around these tubes and to share some information about the different tube styles I have encountered in the wild since I first started selling Geiger Counter kits in 2011.

This is my spotter’s guide to the SBM-20 Geiger counter tube.


This is the quintessential Soviet Geiger Counter tube. 400V operating voltage. 105mm overall length. Gold (brass?) color. Symmetric end caps. Positive terminal is usually marked ‘+’, but if not, it’s the end closest to the CBM-20 marking. Date codes are always four digit, but I have seen both MMYY and YYMM (assuming I am interpreting the numbers correctly). Year of manufacture varies widely but most are 1970s – 1990s.


Very common alternate version of the SBM-20. Shorter 95mm overall length. Positive terminal is exposed rod with no end cap. Soldering to this terminal can be a challenge as the plating is usually quite oxidized and the underlying metal is steel.  I’ve also seen the internal glass seals fail after soldering. These are often sold as SBM-20 tubes, and unscrupulous eBay sellers will sell the SBM-20/SBM-20U interchangeably.

SBM-20 (alternative negative terminal style)

Slightly longer positive terminal. 105mm overall length. Negative terminal is formed from the tube body (cost saving design?). Tubes I have seen are marked ’77’, presumably date code for 1977. Rare.

STS-5 / CTC-5

Older version of the SBM-20. Slightly longer overall length, approx. 110mm. Silver color. Positive terminal is marked + and closest to the CTC-5 marking. Date codes I have seen are mid-1960s through 1970s. I haven’t confirmed this, but I suspect date code is roman numeral month followed by arabic numeral year, eg. VIII 65. Aside from longer overall length, properties and performance are very similar to SBM-20. Less common than SBM-20, presumably because they are older and were not manufactured in great numbers across as many years. Sometimes sold under the name SBM-20.  They are generally interchangeable with “real” SBM-20 tubes, but given that they are significantly older, failure rate might be higher (unconfirmed).


My Geiger Counter kit will accommodate the STS-5 and all of the SBM-20 variants shown. The SBM-20U requires a short jumper wire to connect the positive terminal to the PCB. I recommend using an alligator clip or wrapping a wire around the terminal to avoid compromising the glass to metal seal with the heat of the solder.

10 thoughts on “A spotter’s guide to the SBM-20 Geiger counter tube”

  1. Does the cover of the SBM-20 Tube, the brass colored metal conduct electricity, or should I cover it with thin layer of rubber to be safe to touch or use it on a stick? And how much would a thin layer of rubber block Beta radiation?

  2. Repeat of the question with email request.

    Do you make an x-ray detector- or have some tube that would respond to= > 10KeV (i.e no metal cylinder around tube) that would work with your electronics


    1. I haven’t built a detector specifically for xrays, but the sbm-20 tube is somewhat sensitive to xrays based on what I have heard from others who have experimented with them. A tube with an alpha window might be more sensitive.

  3. Difference between СБМ-20 & СБМ-20У is in climatic standards. 20У is for moist climate. Both for mild and cold zones (-60,+40) Since Soviet Union was vast, there were many different regions from far north to east. Requirements is in ГОСТ 15150-69.
    http://www.istok2.com/data/2398/ СБМ-20
    http://www.istok2.com/data/3003/ СБМ-20У
    Also you should not solder those terminals, there are connectors for them, like for tube fuses.

    There is more sensitive СБМ-19

      1. A Geiger tube just tells you an X-ray or gamma ray has been detected. It does not tell you the energy of the radiation, which is what determines the type and depth of damage done to your body. Really, all a Geiger counter will do is tell you if there is radiation in the area and the relative amount. To get true dose information, you need more sophisticated equipment that measures the energy as well. In general don’t attempt to use the Geiger counter for dose measurement.

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