Arduino-based AVR High Voltage Programmer

Arduino-based AVR High Voltage Programmer

Update 01/02/09: A PCB version of this circuit is in the design stages – some preliminary information is here.

Update 03/11/09: Kits based on this design are now for sale!

Update 12/14/10: The original AVR HV Rescue Shield kit has been replaced by the new and improved HV Rescue Shield 2.  Visit the HV Rescue Shield 2 product page for information about the new kit!

As I mentioned earlier this week, I recently “lost” an ATmega168 due to flashing the configuration fuses to disable the RESET pin, without realizing that this makes the device impossible to reflash with SPI.  This is particularly frustrating because the device is still 100% functional, just completely deaf to ordinary serial programmers.  The only way to recover the device is using what Atmel calls “High Voltage Parallel Programming Mode” which very few programmers support, most importantly, not the USBtinyISP I otherwise love.

Fortunately, my trusty Arduino came to the rescue – I created an Arduino-based AVR programmer that uses the high voltage programming mode and can fix pesky fuses like RSTDISBL.

The Arduino has just enough IO to implement the entire HV protocol plus a “go” button.  So far I have only implemented setting LFUSE and HFUSE in software, but there is no reason why the code couldn’t be extended to support chip erase and programming the entire flash as well.


The fuse programming process is simple:

  • Upload the HVFuse sketch to the Arduino, available for download here: HVFuse.pde
  • Install the shield and apply +12VDC to the terminals on the left
  • Wait for the red LED to turn on (if it isn’t already)
  • Install the ATmega to be repaired
  • Push the button
  • As soon as the LED turns back on, the AVR is fixed and ready to be put back into service!


Here is an Eagle schematic of the HV Programming shield (click to enlarge):

Update 12/17/08:  An observant reader pointed out that there were three errors in the way GND/AGND, AREF and VCC/AVCC were connected on the target AVR in the original schematic.  The errors have been fixed and the updated schematic is below.  Apologies for any confusion this caused.


Parts list:

  • An Arduino NG, Diecimila, or compatible
  • A piece of perfboard cut to size
  • Header pins for the Arduino interface (note I had to drill some of the holes to get the headers to fit the nonstandard pin spacing for digital lines 8-13.
  • An LED which indicates when it is ok to insert/remove the AVR
  • A 2N3903 or similar NPN transistor (2N2222, etc.)
  • (20) 1k resistors – these protect the Arduino from short circuits in case something goes wrong
  • A pushbutton switch – this is the ‘go’ button
  • A 28 pin socket for the target AVR


A kit version of this project is available.  Visit the HV Rescue Shield 2 product page for more information.

123 thoughts on “Arduino-based AVR High Voltage Programmer”

  1. Hi all, anyone knows that the programmer USBASP returns me the following message: ” avrdude : Expected signature for ATmega328P is 95 1E 0F “

  2. Thanx a lot for this marvelous kit.
    Finally i was able to reset my 3 mega8 & 2 mega328.
    I made the board AVR HV Rescue Shield 2 without the converter & w/o MUN5311.
    took 12v directly frm the arduino main input & for transistors used ubiquitous BC547 & BC558 with 1k resistors for biasing.
    I made the board using Eagle.
    Can i share this board in forums?
    Thanx again for ur help to all of us. looking forward for more & more such contribution frm u.

    1. Made an Arduino compatible board using
      Arduino Pro Mini with 7805 & not using the
      on board regulator as 12v had blown the regulator.
      So its important not to connect the RAW pin with 12v.

      once again Thankkkkkkk youuuuuu very very very much.


  3. Thank you Jeff, I wired ver2 on vero board w/o 5vto12 converter and used components from my junk box, everything is working fine. Thanks- de VU2IIA.

    1. that is great to hear! i assume you were using the sketch from the kit page, and not this one? that might explain why your first attempt didn’t work!

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